Thursday, August 27, 2020

How Does Poverty Affect A Child?

How Does Poverty Affect A Child? State parties perceive the privilege of each youngster to a way of life satisfactory for the kid's physical, mental, otherworldly, good and social turn of events. (UN Convention, Article 27) (Daniel, P, 1998, p50) There are two meanings of neediness; supreme and relative. Outright destitution alludes to a lot of gauges which is the equivalent in all nations and which doesn't change after some time, while relative neediness alludes to a standard which is characterized in wording in which the individual lives. In Britain we allude to relative neediness while talking about destitution, as indicated by End kid destitution. Organization (2009) 4 million youngsters, one out of three, are as of now living in destitution in the UK, Any family with a pay of under 60% of the British Median is named in destitution. The official cut disconnected is  £199 every week for single guardians and  £283.20 for a two parent family in the wake of lodging has been paid (Gentleman, Amelia, 2009) It is frequently contended that if kids are housed, taken care of and approach free social insurance that they don't have anything to grumble about, Hilary Fisher, chief of the crusade to End Child Poverty would differ expressing half Dickensian, half wartime, with pictures of kids in sick fitting garments, is a long way from the real world. Individuals have curiously obsolete originations of British destitution (Gentleman, Amelia, 2009) neediness work kill guarantee Giving a weeks worth of suppers for three individuals for  £6.66 a head is simple once you turn out to be the means by which, .The gas and power installments for the week have just been made, so she realizes the kids will be warm. A moms words cited from an article from The Guardian. She likewise dismisses the recommendation that her family may be depicted as poor. God help us, she says solidly. We get by. neediness work kill guarantee Destitution for the most part implies kids pass up school trips, don't have satisfactory winter apparel and arent ready to appreciate relaxation exercises with their companions. Accordingly, their training endures making it hard to get the capabilities they have to proceed onward to supportable, generously compensated employments. This confines their capability to gain the cash expected to help their own families in later life, thus a pattern of destitution is made. As indicated by Rowntree the two most noteworthy reasons for kid destitution are long haul joblessness and the developing number of low paid occupations. (Daniel, P, 1998, p59) Children who experience childhood in destitution face a more serious danger of having unexpected frailty, being presented to wrongdoing and neglecting to arrive at their maximum capacity. Adolescence is the most helpless time of life and wellbeing disparities can have enduring impacts all through life. Great wellbeing in the early years establishes the frameworks for positive turn of events. Katy Morton says youngsters living in destitution are bound to be fat and have poor dental wellbeing. (Nursery World). Stoutness can prompt an expanded danger of diabetes, coronary illness, hypertension, osteoarthritis and a few tumors. Connection hypothesis is the joint work of John Bowlby and Mary (Ainsworth Bowlby, 1991). He consequently reformed our considering a childs bind to the mother and its interruption through division, hardship, and loss. Mary Ainsworth contributed the idea of the connection figure as a protected base from which a newborn child can investigate the world. the web/inge_origins.pdf. Destitution lessens the parental bond and connection among parent and kid, because of the parent being pre-busy with budgetary issues, lodging stresses and medical issues, as indicated by investigations of guardians in poor families (Huston, 199; McLoyd, 1990; Sampson Laub, 1994) (Rudolph Schaffer, H, p346) This could be contended that youngsters whose guardians are unemployed and are at home with the kids may have a superior connection with their kids because of time spent at home' the initial not many months are imperative with the end goal for infants to shape solid connections.' http :// These examinations likewise proposed that youngster that originate from less fortunate homes regularly live in a confused and scattered way because of guardians being excessively occupied with their own issues and that kids would bound to be pulled in to playing in the road and are bound to come to hurt inside the home and outside of the home. That guardians are bound to utilize 'sporadic' and ' disciplinary strategies' to utilize physical discipline on their kids. (Rudolph Schaffer, H, p346) Numerous kids who face neediness get away from harm and form into well-working grown-ups. (Rudolph, Schaffer, H, p347) Poverty doesn't generally prompt lacking child rearing yet can effectsly affect the youngsters' confidence and mental self portrait prompting sadness and uselessness. (Rudolph, Schaffer, H, p347) Kids who have scholarly, athletic or masterful ability which prompts satisfaction are bound to follow worthy pathways as opposed to driving into hostile to social conduct, brutality and wrongdoing. (Rudolph, Schaffer, H, p347) Where kids who originate from destitution their folks will most likely be unable to manage the cost of the expenses for such exercises and not have the option to subsidize the hardware required, this could bring about the youngster not having the option to build up their gifts. (Rudolph, Schaffer, H, p347) It was in 1867 that Thomas Barnado set up the Ragged School and beginning aiding the mishandled, helpless, overlooked and ignored offspring of east London and his work despite everything proceeds with today. 'Barnardos vision today is that the lives all things considered and youngsters ought to be liberated from neediness, misuse and segregation. Barnardos have faith in the manhandled, the powerless, the overlooked and the dismissed. We promise to help them, defend them and draw out the best in every single youngster' A legislature authorized report on wellbeing imbalances will give a key impact on future general wellbeing strategy in the UK, as indicated by Health Secretary Frank Dobson the Acheson report distributed in 1998 exhibits the presence of wellbeing incongruities and their relationship to social class, the report requires an expansion in benefits for eager moms as they have insufficient weight control plans. There is considerable proof that decreased bosom taking care of, little for-gestational-age birth weight, Fe and I lack, and protein-vitality unhealthiness (PEM) are related with long haul deficiencies in discernment and school accomplishment. Be that as it may, every one of these conditions are related with neediness and unforeseen weakness, as indicated by a report by S. M. Grantham-McGregor, S. P. Walker and S. Chang Cognitive advancement are stages that youngsters need to go through to comprehend and understand their general surroundings as expressed by Piaget (Kehily, M, J, pg, 145, 2009) Additionally expressing that neediness disproportionaty affects youngsters, and kids under two are more costly to take care of than more seasoned kids, yet Income Support levels don't mirror this. Besides it expresses that many low salary families need more cash to purchase the things and administrations important for good wellbeing, implying that cash for food is regularly used to meet crises. The report calls for all the more subsidizing for schools in denied territories, better sustenance at schools and wellbeing advancing schools. Advancing wellbeing through the educational program, offering free new foods grown from the ground putting sweet machines on the premises. The report additionally states kids from distraught foundations accomplish less at school than other kids and are bound to proceed to land seriously paid positions or be jobless. This prompts an endless loop of medical issues related with low salary and a propagation of the neediness trap. The poor are likewise twice as prone to have drink issues as the rich. Seventeen percent of poor men and 6% of poor ladies has a liquor issue, contrasted and 8% of rich men and 3% of rich ladies. People with a lower level of instructive accomplishment would in general have a less sound eating routine as per results from The Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey (LIDNS). In Britain in 1997, one home in each three was delegated a low-pay family unit. With kids being brought up in neediness were more averse to go to class all the time, not advancing on to encourage training and picking up capabilities to lead into work. Young ladies were bound to become youthful moms and to fall into a similar pattern of hardship as their folks. There is a solid connection between youth encounters and grown-up life-possibilities. Previous Prime Minister, Tony Blair, vowed in 1999, to end kid neediness by 2020 with an interval focus to split kid destitution by 2010/11. Youngsters living in destitution for the most part need to live in poor lodging conditions, this can prompt the kid having medical issues like asthma, bronchitis, living in awful lodging can cause extreme sick wellbeing and incapacity before they arrive at middle age. they are bound to be missing from school, kid improvement endures because of their house being cold and soggy, their chest harms when they inhale, and not having the option to rest around evening time, when the warming doesn't fill in as an article by lisa Harker states. Child Matters government program for kid government assistance chooses wellbeing, security, monetary well-be

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Methods of Quality Improvement Statistics Project

Strategies for Quality Improvement - Statistics Project Example Besides, the R-outline shows no focuses outside the upper control cutoff or lower control limit. Consequently, the procedure is under measurable control and we can say that from the viewpoint of procedure variety, the procedure is in charge. x-bar graph gauges the focal inclination (exactness) of a procedure and demonstrate whether changes have happened. R-graph gauges the fluctuation (scattering) of a procedure. R-outline demonstrates that an addition or misfortune in consistency has happened. R-outline is autonomous from process mean. x-bar diagram and R-outline are utilized together to screen factors in process are in charge (or not). R-outline is observed before the x-bar graph. This is on the grounds that the x-bar outline limits depend on the normal range and on the off chance that procedure changeability isn't steady and is influenced by extraordinary causes, at that point is definitely not a solid gauge of fluctuation, and along these lines the x-bar graph limits are less significant (Moore et. al., 2011). The R-outline demonstrates that the procedure inconstancy is in charge, as all the extents for the subgroup are in the middle of upper and lower control cutoff points and there is no unordinary design, as we move from left to directly on the R-graph. Nonetheless, the x-bar outline shows that the procedure exactness isn't in charge, as not all the methods for the subgroup are in the middle of upper and lower control limits. Balanced sub-groupings are utilized in building control graphs so the individual perceptions inside the subgroups have been estimated under comparable procedure conditions. The primary thought behind reasonable sub gathering is that in the event that the individual perceptions inside the subgroups are as homogeneous as could be expected under the circumstances, at that point any uncommon causes disturbing the procedure will be reflected by more noteworthy fluctuation between the subgroups. At the point when uncommon causes are available all the while, judicious sub-gathering endeavors to expand the probability that subgroup insights will flag that the procedure is

Friday, August 21, 2020

Writing a Successful College Application Essay

Writing a Successful College Application EssayWriting a successful college application essay is not an easy task. While this isn't actually a requirement of the college selection process, it is a good way to show your true ability. So many students often go into college unaware of what their letters of recommendation are supposed to look like and they never give them much thought.College application essays are different from personal essays in that they must be fairly short and sweet. You can do more with an essay if you have a greater number of resources at your disposal but the application essay is fairly simple to write and will get through the paper fairly quickly.When you are writing a college application essay, you have to make sure that your recommendations are interesting. One thing that is very important is that your essay should show your commitment to the college and the reasons why they should hire you.Essays are extremely important to college applications and it is defin itely a good idea to practice what you are going to write. Do not let anyone edit your essay because it is really only for one person to read. That is why it is so important to practice before hand.The one skill that you will need to learn when writing a college application essay is how to write a resume. Many times students skip over this part of the application process as soon as they have submitted the letter of recommendation. The truth is that all of the important information is in the resume and you should spend a lot of time on the resume to ensure that it is polished and effective.Writing a college application essay isn't difficult but it does take some time and effort. If you don't write a lot, you should probably start by giving it your best shot by reading through the guidelines for your specific college and community. Read over them carefully and pick out the things that are most important to you.You are going to need to give yourself some credit for your hard work becau se it is not an easy task. In fact, if you work as hard as possible when writing a college application essay you will be surprised at how much easier it becomes.So, when you are writing a college application essay you have to make sure that you follow the guidelines and make sure that you write a quality essay. It really is not difficult but it can be time consuming so make sure that you are patient and don't get discouraged if you can't get through it right away.

Monday, May 25, 2020

The Case of the Floundering Expatriate - A Case Analysis...

INTRODUCTION In an Economic Times article on the 15th of September there is a report that says that more and more expatriates and foreign corporate managers are queuing to take up Indian assignments. This is because the idea of an Indian experience from a growth and role perspective offers them a huge value addition. As an HR head says India is a market of constant learning and provides expatriates with a foundation for a global tomorrow. This article if taken in context with the case in question gives us the clear correlation between foreign assignments and future corporate success. A foreign assignment with all its hardship and adjustment fears is a perfect platform for future CEO s to showcase their abilities. Success in a foreign†¦show more content†¦His wife is bored without work; their eldest daughter is facing problems with grades in the British school. The problem is not just a temporary adjustment problem. Donaldson is at his wit s end as he has tried everything possible to appease and motivate his staff but they refuse to listen. The problem is so serious that Bert has personally admitted to his inability to handle the juniors. Frank has to take a decision with regard to Donaldson. Some of the options include sticking with him for another year, firing him or sending him back to America. ANALYSIS OF THE TWO MAIN CHARACTERS Donaldson His stint in Europe is marked by numerous cultural faux pas due to his lack of cultural savvy. He does not interact with his juniors, learn Swiss German, and is unpunctual too. His schedules run overtime, he does not know how to show adequate respect to his subordinates. The incident with Hassler epitomizes what is wrong with Bert. Even when he tries to be at his best behaviour he is unable to communicate with the vice president. Frank Waterhouse Frank s desire to rise to the top at any cost becomes detrimental to his company as he refuses to see the problem as his own. Frank failed to usher in Donaldson. This can be seen by the fact that he did not even attend the first workshop. As CEO he also does not have any proper communication channels as the news of dissatisfaction with Bert reaches him very late. He is also excessively fearful of adverse reactions fromShow MoreRelatedUnited Arab of Emirates Country Notebook18844 Words   |  76 PagesEmirates Country Notebook Presented to Dr. Shahira El Alfy Prepared by: Mohamed Ibrahim Osama Mosher Ismail Ahmed El-Mohamady Hesham Mostafa Eslsca 36 – Global Management I. Cultural Analysis: Identification of the Emirates History: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) consists of the seven emirates, which are: Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ras Al-Khaimah, Ajman, Umm Al-Qaiwain, and Fujairah. They were united as a federal state on 2Read MoreUnited Arab of Emirates Country Notebook18844 Words   |  76 PagesEmirates Country Notebook Presented to Dr. Shahira El Alfy Prepared by: Mohamed Ibrahim Osama Mosher Ismail Ahmed El-Mohamady Hesham Mostafa Eslsca 36 – Global Management I. Cultural Analysis: Identification of the Emirates History: The United Arab Emirates (UAE) consists of the seven emirates, which are: Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ras Al-Khaimah, Ajman, Umm Al-Qaiwain, and Fujairah. They were united as a federal state on 2Read MoreStephen P. Robbins Timothy A. Judge (2011) Organizational Behaviour 15th Edition New Jersey: Prentice Hall393164 Words   |  1573 Pagesaware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Robbins, Stephen P. Organizational behavior / Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge. — 15th ed. p. cm. Includes indexes. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-283487-2 ISBN-10: 0-13-283487-1 1. Organizational behavior. I. Judge, Tim. II. Title. HD58.7.R62 2012 658.3—dc23 2011038674 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN 10: 0-13-283487-1 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-283487-2 Brief Contents Preface

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Great Mesopotamian Temples - 742 Words

1 Running Head: ZIGGURATS ZIGGURATS: The Great Mesopotamian Temples Britney Male Lincoln Charter School October 11th, 2015 Mr. Thomas World History In 4000 B.C.E., ziggurats were located in the heart of every Mesopotamian or Persian city-state. A ziggurat is a massive stepped tower on which was built a temple dedicated to the chief god(dess) of a Sumerian city. They were inspired by the biblical story of the Tower of Babel, which is found in Genesis 11:1–9. One of the largest ziggurats is about seven-hundred feet high and uses hundred of thousands of bricks. Ziggurats can only be accessed by stairs or a type of spiral ramp winding around the outside because it was easy for the guards and to keep the priest’s rituals private, only if they wanted. Even if there is only twenty-five ziggurats still standing today, the most famous one named, The Great of Ur., changes how archaeologists looks at ancient Egypt. First of all, the interior of the ziggurat is made up of mud brick covered with baked bricks and is laid with bitumen; a naturally occurring tar. The lower portion of the ziggurats uses about 720,000 baked bricks. Each brick was about 11.5 by 11.5 and was weighed as much as thirty-three pounds. Therefore, it would of taken over one-hundred eighty workers. Regular ziggurats would have from two to seven levels, each one would be smaller than the one before. Ziggurats can get as tall as seven hundred feet if there is seven levels. In addition, â€Å"The tall height ofShow MoreRelatedEssay on Ancient Greek and Mesopotamian Religions - a Comparison1501 Words   |  7 Pagesancient Mesopotamian and the Greeks. These two religions were practiced in different areas and at different times and, therefore, show that religion has played a critical role in every society and civilization. No matter how it is organized or what type of god is worshiped, a society would be nothing without some ki nd of deity to organize it. In comparing the religious beliefs of the Mesopotamian and the Ancient Greeks religious components highlighted including the style of worship, the temples orRead MoreComparing The Egyptians And The Mesopotamians Essay1449 Words   |  6 Pages Hawa 1 Teacher Ms. Smith Pre-AP World History Oct 6, 2016 Comparing the Egyptians and the Mesopotamians Egyptians and the Mesopotamians were neolithic civilizations. They both grew crops and they both relied on agriculture and had many rulers as time went on. We start at Egypt In 3100 B.C and Mesopotamians at 5000 B.C (1). The Nile river was a key place for the start of the Ancient Egyptian empire. Egyptians themselves were located near lower EgyptRead MoreThe Sumerian Deities : Religion1634 Words   |  7 PagesSea. This empire did not last long. The religion of the ancient Sumerians has left its mark on the entire Middle East. Not only are its temples and ziggurats scattered about the region, but the literature, cosmogony and rituals influenced their neighbors that we can see patterns of Sumer in the Judeo-Christian-Islamic tradition today. From these ancient temples, and to a greater extent, through cuneiform writings of hymns, myths, lamentations, and incantations, archaeologists and mythographers canRead MoreEgypt And Mesopotamia917 Words   |  4 Pagesand Mesopotamia When you think about ancient architecture, what questions arise? Do you ask yourself about its history, durability, and structure? For example, Egypt is known for its pyramids, while Mesopotamia is known for its temple. Both are influential and recognizable after so many years and will continue to be for years to come, those questions come without a doubt to mind. In the following paragraphs, these questions will be answered and explained in depth regarding theseRead MoreSimilarities Between Mesopotamian And Ancient Mesopotamia1628 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction During the Third Early Dynastic Period the Mesopotamian region flourished with wealth, knowledge and art. The the sub-regions and their city states reached the height of their glory, especially in the region of Sumer. In turn, Mesopotamian religion began to shift drastically. This can be shown in the Great Lyre, from the Royal Tomb of Ur, Stele of Naram-sin, from Sipper, Babylon, and Law Code of Hammurabi, which was also caved in Babylon as well. All three pieces of art are very differentRead MoreEgypt and Mesopotamia: Similarities and Differences in Religion956 Words   |  4 Pagesin ancient civilizations were centered around their belief systems. The Egyptians and the Mesopotamians were no different in this sense. Both civilizations were polytheistic and built elaborate temples to praise their gods. Additionally, the leaders in both regions were believed to be related to the gods because of the great power they held and the wealth under their control. However, the Mesopotami ans had a pessimistic outlook on life because of the unpredictability of their environment. TheRead MoreAccording to the modern researchers, the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations likely seem very1200 Words   |  5 PagesAccording to the modern researchers, the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations likely seem very similar. They had cities, a relatively high standard of living, music, arts , religion, writing, and literature.They both developed at the same time . However, they differed in important and some different ways, especially in terms of culture, politics, religion, art and architecture. Also, they have the geography which is their located differently. 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For the Mesopotamians, the natural world constantly threatened to flood their crops and their homes: floods and torrential rains were a significant theme in Mesopotamian literature as depicted in the Epic of Gilgamesh (Kries, 2006, Lecture 2). In the Epic, the gods are depicted as angry, temperamental beings that callously give and takeRead MoreMesopotamia And Its Impact On Mesopotamia Essay924 Words   |  4 PagesMesopotamia was the highlight of all regions. The location falls right in between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, where modern day Iraq is today. It was located right along â€Å"the fertile crescent†. Because of this the soil was very rich which caused great agriculture. It was one of the first civilizations to roam the earth. During 4300 BCE, the late Ubaid period in Mesopotamia began. Many events and actions took place during this time. Mesopotamia was an outstanding region and contained many treasures

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Accounting And Accrual Basis Of Accounting Essay - 983 Words

1) Business owners are given a choice between using the cash basis of accounting and the accrual basis of accounting. a) Which of the two methods do you believe a business would choose? Depends on what kind of benefit the business owners are looking for. b) Why? If owners are looking for more accurate revenue and expense, accrual basis should be applied. However, if the owner is looking for less work by cutting down the time to make adjusting entries and want to know more accurate view of cash flows, the business owners will likely to choose cash basis. c) What type of business is likely to use a cash basis or modified cash basis and why? Small businesses will likely to use a cash basis or modified cash basis because the accrual basis of accounting is not required by the reporting purpose and cash basis require less accounting knowledge. For example, when I go to QQ bakery or Liang Chinese BBQ place on 13miles and Dequindre, they only take cash. Though it is not limited to cash-only businesses, if the businesses only accept cash, I think this type of businesses are highly likely to use cash basis or modified cash basis. 2) Based on the method selected in #1a, a) Will the financial statements presented show a true representation of the company s performance? Accrual basis shows a true representation of the company’s performance. Please see the further explanation on 2) c) for detailed amounts. b) On which financial statement did you focus toShow MoreRelatedAccrual Basis Of Accounting Over Cash Basis1534 Words   |  7 PagesThere has been a significant debate focusing on costs and benefits of adopting accrual basis of accounting over cash basis of accounting. This paper illustrates the concepts of accrual basis of accounting, highlights the benefits of accrual basis of accounting posed by its advocates and also briefly discusses the disadvantages of adopting accrual basis accounting. The paper also briefly discusses the recent accounting scandal of Tesco Plc. which showed that profits of the company were overestimatedRead MoreAccrual Basis Accounting Essay example786 Words   |  4 PagesAccrual Basis Accounting Accrual accounting is a system of accounting that is based on the accrual principal accounting. This principal requires revenue to be recognized and recorded when earned. Expenses are to be recorded when they occur. The accrual basis of accounting is used by most companies. Very small businesses and individuals use cash basis accounting. The major distinction between the accrual and the cash basis of accounting is when revenue and expenses are recognized. When theRead MoreAccounting and Finance: Essay on Accrual Basis1097 Words   |  5 PagesAC300:Financial Accounting I - Compulsory essay due 15th November Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of financial statements prepared on an accrual basis The financial statement is a financial document used to indicate the financial position of a business at a particular moment in time. A business’s financial position can be analysed into three main areas: Profitability, liquidity and stewardships. The statement is prepared at the end of each financial year using accounting basis. The Accrual accountingRead MoreDefine: Generally Accepted Accounting Principles and Accrual Basis1391 Words   |  6 PagesEquity 2 What is the purpose of an account? What is the purpose of a ledger? 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This paper explores cash basis, accrual, and hybridRead MoreStarbucks s Financial Statements Follow The Accrual Accounting Model Rather Than Cash Basis Accounting1359 Words   |  6 PagesConn-Powers, John Early, Colette Kent, Kate Rhoad, Erica Jie Wang Case 2 (Starbucks - Part 2) h) i) Starbucks’ financial statements follow the accrual accounting model rather than cash-basis accounting. Companies who utilize cash-basis accounting methods only recognize revenue when received in cash and expenses are only recognized when paid in cash. Accrual accounting is the recognition of revenue when earned and the matching of expenses when incurred. Starbucks records revenue from 4 different sources:Read MoreAccrual Basis Vs. Cash Basis1737 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract This is a discussion of two types of accounting methods that most companies use, accrual basis or cash basis. A definition of both concepts and comparisons between the two methods will be discussed. In addition, it describes and examines the difference in the managing of those methods and which form of accounting method is more useful and beneficial to provide information to users for different purposes. In cash basis accounting, revenue is recorded only when the cash is received, andRead MoreHistory Of Accounting And Private Sector1534 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Since the early 1980s public sector accounting and private sector accounting have experienced significant transformation such as decentralization, deregulation and the differences between thee two sectors are highly topical and political in many countries (Blondal 2003). The key transformation is the adoption of ‘accrual basis’ of accounting rather than ‘cash basis’ accounting by increasing number of countries (Guthrie and Ryan 1998). Meanwhile, public sectors refer specifically to organizationsRead MoreA Comparison Between Cash Accounting and Accrual Accounting1110 Words   |  5 PagesA COMPARISON BETWEEN CASH ACCOUNTING AND ACCRUAL ACCOUNTING 1. Introduction Accounting principle and theory are generally referred to two main accounting methods which include cash accounting and accrual accounting. Cash basis accounting on income and cost is determined by the amount of actual payment for reference and accounting recording mode is simple, easy to master. The use of the accrual basis of accounting is more complicated than it with a main difference of recording timing. This essayRead MoreCash Based Accounting Accrual Based Accounting1107 Words   |  5 Pagestypes of accounting measurement to determine the profit. They are cash basis and accrual basis. Business can use either a cash basis or accrual basis to work there profit. However, most of the company prefers to use accrual basis instead of others. In this essay, I will compare the difference between cash basis and accrual basis on expense and revenue. In addition, how can company choose their measurement of profit will also be discussed. Cash basis accrual basis Cash basis accounting is focus

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Impact Of ICT On Tourism And Hospitality Industries Sample

Chapter 1: Introduction 1.1 Introduction With the advent of Information and communication technology (ICT) tools management in tourism and hospitality sector has become easier (Akehurst, 2008). Majority of the hotels are now able to manage their customers and functions with the help of e-tourism, e-promotions, e-booking and e-commerce systems. The use of the official websites, social sites and also mobile tourism apps have helped different hotels in the tourism sector to keep connected with the customers about the recent offers and packages. There are several companies in the hospitality and the tourism industry that engages in the application of the ICT in the tourism industry that helps in minimizing the time and also increases the efficiency of the operations in the tourism industry. There are various activities that can be conducted with the help of the ICT applications in the hospitality industry like check-in and check-out service, social media networking, room booking, acquiring details of the hotels etc. Does The Intricacy of The Topic Intimidate You? Tame Your Fear with Unmatched Assignment Help Services from Professional Writers. Travel apps also allow the customers to check conveniently the flight and train timings online, to get reviews and ratings about the destinations, hotels and airlines services and also to book online tickets. According to (Ali and Frew, 2014) the use of ICT tools have reduced the work load of the employees in the hospitality sector. For instance the travelers dont have to wait in long lines at the airport for check in because all international airports are now equipped with auto check in systems. Thus it is evident that there are several advantages of using ICT in the industry, there are certain drawbacks. The application of ICT can be very expensive for the organizations but it can provide significant benefit to the consumers. It can be difficult for smaller organizations to implement the ICT technology due to its extensive cost. Another disadvantage of the measure is the security risk that is seen in case of ICT use due to high cyber crime rate. The social media has also played sig nificant role in ICT application in the industry. The social media network like facebook and twitter are used extensively in recent times as promotional tools and it can also be used as information and feedback space for various organizations. 1.2 Background of Ritz-Carlton millennia hotel, Singapore Located in the commercial and business area of Millenia Singapore, Ritz Carlton hotel is run by Ritz Carlton group of company which has over 84 luxury hotels in around 26 countries. The Singapore branch was opened in 1996 with a view to provide comfortable and luxury service to all eminent guests (THE RITZ-CARLTON, 2015). The visitors of Ritz-Carlton can discover the fact that a traditional canvas is not always required for the work of art. The hotel has a stunning structure and it is designed by Kevin Roche, who is Pritzker price-winning architect. The hotel has contemporary style and it has subtle oriental touches against the backdrop of city skyline and Marina Bay. The guests of the hotel can experience of a luxury five star hotel and they can immerse in visually stimulating sight with 4,200 contemporary art pieces. There are luxury restaurants in the hotel and these are perfect venue for receptions and weddings as the hotel offers exquisite and state-of-the art facilities to the customers (THE RITZ-CARLTON, 2015). The hotel is designed to provide external views of Marina Bay or Kallang Bay from all 680 guest rooms. For the entertainment facilities the hotel provides roof top club, private lounge, rooms equipped with Bulgaria bath facilities, flat screen televisions and personal butler service. The hotel comprises of 32 floors and 2 basements and provides two ranges of food restaurants namely the Signature restaurant and Greenhouse restaurant to serve the different ranges of customers (THE RITZ-CARLTON, 2015). The hotel serves various business clients by organizing business meetings, product launches and fashion shows within the tropical themed garden, 12 meeting rooms and function rooms in the premises. The management of the hotel also arranges for cheap holiday packages of Singapore and facilitates easy e-bookings through online commerce system. 1.3 Aims of research The research aims to determine the effects and impacts of the tools of Information and communication technology within the overall hospitality and tourism sector keeping in mind the case of Ritz Carlton Millenia Hotel Singapore. 1.4 Objectives of research To analyze the effect of ICT on the overall hospitality and tourism sector To analyze the effectiveness of the ICT tools in the business process of Ritz Carlton Millenia Hotel Singapore To recommend the various tools that can be suitably used by the Ritz Carlton Millenia hotel to make its service better 1.5 Summary This chapter aims at providing an in-depth knowledge about the ICT applications used in the hospitality and tourism sector. Further the chapter gives an overview of the features and services of Ritz Carlton Hotel, Singapore and describes the objectives and the aim of the researcher behind conducting of the study. Chapter 2: Literature review 2.1 Introduction This chapter deals with the analysis of the various concepts and academic theories in relation to use of ICT in tourism and hospitality industry. The chapter will help the researcher to progress with the research based on the information collected from the academic journals and books. 2.2 Concept of Information and communication technology (ICT) According to (Andreu et al., 2010) ICT combines all kinds of modern technologies like satellite systems, mobile apps, video conferencing and e systems which have enabled the tourism as well as all industries to develop a proper management of business and customers. The four major aspects of ICT that are used within any organizational framework are namely the hardware or the external devices, the software or the programs, telecommunication services and also the human ware which comprises of techniques of managing the customers effectively. Balaguer and Pernas, 2013, opined that the use of the telecommunication software like social media apps, Google plus apps, Smartphone apps , travel apps have helped the customers and the managers of tourism industry to stay connected at all places of the world. The hardware or the external devices like the digital television, smart phones, laptops and computers, security machines, e bill payment systems have also contributed in reduction of time as well as cost of organizations. In the recent years the organizations have also implemented human software systems like customer relationship management (CRM), management information system (MIS) and Data base management system (DBMS) for the better management of the customers demands. The ICT plays vital role in increasing the efficiency and the productivity of the organizations and it can also improve the communication process of the organizations. An organization can make effective decisions on the basis of the technology and it also manages the procedures and processes of the business in terms of information collection (Barreda and Bilgihan, 2013). 2.3 Role of ICT tools in Tourism and hospitality sector Compared to other sectors of the global economy the tourism industry in one of the fastest growing sector generating around more than 35% of the total global services Hence Berne, Garcia-Gonzalez and Mugica, 2012 opined that effective and high speed ICT infrastructure and software applications on being used in the tourism sector allow customer management and supply chain management of the companies. Following benefits are noted in the tourism and hospitality sector due to use of ICT technologies. The hotels and travel companies are able to provide individualized and personalized information on travel packages and hotel rates on their websites With the social and economic ratings of the destinations and the hotels in the social media networks the customers are able to chose the desired location and hotel Helps to strengthen the brand image through promotions of press releases and new discounted packages though the websites and Twitter. Quick and hassle free system of online reservation and online receiving of the payment has reduced the work burden of the employees of the hospitality sector. ICT facilities in the hotel rooms like wifi internet access, digital television and data ports make the accommodation pleasurable for the customers (Bowden, 2007). ICT is one of the most useful and effective tools for managing the external environment of the hospitality industry. The organization can involve in effective communication with the consumers by using appropriate ICT technology. Here several social media networkd like facebook and twitter can be used to interact with the consumers. On the other hand, interaction with the consumers can also be done by using other video calling tools like box maul, hotmail, Gtalk, skype etc. the consumers need to be updated regarding various facilities and the services and that can help in maintaining customer relations (Carvo, 2010). So it can be said that the ICT is one of the effective measures of achieving the goals and objectives of an organization. In present scenario most of the hotels use the ICT facilities in order to input the documents of the customers at the time of check-in. It is known that the use of smartphones has been extensive in recent times and it is also used to find hotels and in various locations and it also allows direct access to the required information by the users. The consumers can also make payments and book the rooms from the device (Chia, 2011). 2.4 Impact of ICT on business operations of hospitality industry DiPietro and Wang, 2010, opined that the use of the ICT tools have huge benefits for the travel and hotel companies. However the extensive use of the ICT technologies may bring about certain negative impacts on the business process of the organizations. The use of e payment system may result in wrong monetary transaction which will affect the goodwill of the company. Moreover the hotel websites or the ratings from the social media may be misleading in respect of information about the hotels and travel packages. Moreover Dudensing, Hughes and Shields, (2011), commented that majority of the websites of the Asian hospitality industry lacks mobile portability. Hence the customers are not able to view them as and when required. In some cases it is also found that the employees of the hotel or the tourism industry dont have proper training of ICT use. It is evident that ICT implementation in any business unit can provide extensive benefits to the organizations. In the hospitality industry, ICT can significantly increase the efficiency of the operations and it can provide several opportunities to the organizations as well as the consumers. In present times each and every hotel has their own websites that is created for providing open access information to the consumers. In various social network sites, the hotel creates pages for interacting with the consumers (Gjerald and Lyngstad, 2015). 2.5 Concept of E-tourism As per the data of Travel Industry Association of America the products of the travel and tourism industry are one of the most frequent online transacted products. Most of the tourism products are purchased through e commerce or m commerce. The concept of E tourism includes concepts of e airlines, e hospitality, e tour operators, e travel agencies and e destinations. E airlines: Since 1962 the airline authorities in different countries have introduced the e reservation system which enabled the customers to get information relating to the best routes and fares along with availability of travel agencies in the display board. This made the flight system convenient for the tourists (K, 2014). E hospitality: ICT tools have been extensively used in the hotel operations reshaping the marketing function and improving the total efficiency of the operations as well as the work force. The organizations with large departments, transactions, arrivals, departures and reservations find the use of ICT tools effective for the management. E tour operators: The tour operators require the ICT tools for constant interaction with their partners for arrangement of the accommodation and transportation purposes. The introduction of intranets, extranets and internet has helped the tour operators to co ordinate and exchange timely information and resolve potential problems. For instance some of the tour operators allow consumers to make online alteration of their tour packages and also make suggestions for their preferred food items (Lu and Stepchenkova, 2014). E destinations: The uses of the tools of Destination management system (DMS) have helped to combine the tourism supply at destination. The Destination Integrated Computerized Information Reservation Management Systems (DICIRMS) helps the hospitality sector by integrating all information required for tourism industry as well as destinations. 2.6 Web Evaluation With the introduction of ICT websites promotion has become an important aspect of online promotion of the hospitality and tourism industry. Hence web evaluation of the company websites of the hotels and tour agencies are an important task on the parts of the management of the hotels and the tour agencies (Minghetti and Buhalis, 2009). 2.6.1 Quantitative Approach: Here the quantitative approach can be considered as well for the web evaluation. The numerical data measurement like flow of traffic can be measured using the following tools. Technology Appetence Model (TAM): Perceived Usefulness: the job performance can be more effective with the help of perceived usefulness as it will increase the ability of relevant information search. Perceived Ease of Use: the site needs to be made user-friendly and thus interactive design needs to be used for navigating the searching methods for the provision of exact searcg option for the users (Novak and Schwabe, 2009). In this diagram, the Technology Appetence Model is shown. 2.6.2 Qualitative Approach: For managing and defining the websites, the perception of the users is very important. The perception of the users can also help in maintaining the quality of the website by filling the performance gap (Richard, Thirkell and Huff, 2007). Here several qualitative approaches can be used for analyzing the quality of a website like interactivity, usability, design, and coverage accuracy etc. The most appropriate technique for the evaluation of a website is DCIU that is Design, Contents, Interactivity and the Usability. Design: the design refers to the visual attractiveness of a website or how the website is presented. The use of layout, pictures, color, font size, animations etc can increase the appeal of the website. Thus the design of the website can increase the attractiveness of the users (Stepaniuk, 2014). Contents: the contents are very important part of the website as it is the main source that needs to be accessed by the users. It is very important to include all the relevant information regarding the organization and add various applications that can provide complete satisfaction to the users. Interactivity: the interactivity is another important feature or quality of a website. The website should include the responsiveness or the communicative means for the users so that they can interact within the website with the hotel (eri and Gil-Saura, 2012). Usability: It is very important that the website is user-friendly as it can increase the customer satisfaction and the users can easily gain access to information and it also increases the efficiency of the website. There are several aspects such as layout of booking, feedback and enquiry area, blog page, advance booking, navigation, contrast, for the hotel website. 2.7 Search Engines: Search engine is also one of the effective tools of ICT that can be used for benefitting the organizations in the hospitality industry. There are multiple search engines in the industry like Google yahoo, Bing, MSN. It is evident that most of the people use these search engines to gather information regarding the hotels. Thus it is very important to gain a good ranking in these search engines so that the value can be optimized. The following tools can be used for improving positions in the search engine (Richard, Thirkell and Huff, 2007). Search Engine Marketing (SEM): The hotel websites can gain better position in the search engine with the help of Search engine marketing. It can provide effective position to the hotel website. Most of the developers use paid SEM for increasing the traffic of the website. Search Engine Optimization (SEO): the SEO can also be used for improving the presence of the hotel website in the search engine. Various factors can be considered here for the high listings of the website in the search engine. These factors are accuracy of keywords, images, videos etc (Lu and Stepchenkova, 2014). When a hotel website gains higher visibility, it attains higher ranks. Some of the techniques of increasing the rank is SEO, SEOmoz, Likscape etc. 2.8 Summary: In this chapter several theories are presented related with the ICT and how it can be used or the benefits of the hotels in the hospitality industry. Here several tools and techniques used in ICT are also discussed. Chapter 3: Research Methodology 3.1 Introduction This chapter deals with the identification of the different techniques and the philosophies that will be used by the researcher in the following study. The chapter will show the justification behind adoption of the chosen philosophy, approach, methods and designs. In order to critically evaluate the effectiveness of the ICT tools the researcher has taken the help of different books, academic journals, reviews and blog opinions (Lu and Stepchenkova, 2014). This chapter outlines the use of appropriate methods which has helped in completion of the research. 3.2 Research philosophy Post positivism According to Turabian, (2007) research philosophy is the type of mindset that the researcher is about to adopt at the beginning of the research. The mindset affects the results of the research. The researcher has undertaken the post positivism philosophy for presentation of the ideas by analyzing the theories, background information and values because this will help the researcher to make an in-depth analysis of the effectiveness of ICT in the tourism sector. 3.3 Research approach Quantitative and qualitative approach Majority of the surveys about the hospitality industries are conducted with the opinions of the customers. The researcher in this study will adopt two major approaches namely the Quantitative approach and the Qualitative approach. Turbian, (2007) opined that quantitative approach deals with analyzing the opinions of the customers using various statistical methods like SPSS, excel etc. On the contrary the qualitative analysis will help the researcher to evaluate the responses of the managers and the internal employees of the organization. In this case the researcher will use the quantitative approach in order to evaluate the opinions of the customers of Ritz Carlton in analyzing the effectiveness of the ICT tools within the hotel. Further with the help of the qualitative techniques the researcher will be able to analyze the responses of the managers of Ritz Carlton. For evaluation of design, content, interactivity and usability (DCIU) the qualitative responses are to be used. 3.4 Research design Descriptive design Creswell, (2003) opined that research design is the blue print of the research methods that are to be used for the purpose of research. Hence selection of appropriate design is very important to the success of the research study. There are three different types of research designs namely explanatory, exploratory and descriptive. For the purpose of convenience the researcher has used the descriptive design in the following study. Creswell, (2003) opined that descriptive design helps a researcher to observe the facts about the research and make surveys about the related topics for conducting of the research. Hence the researcher here will be able to make an in-depth analysis of the topics like th website effectiveness of Ritz Carlton and the ranking of the hotel in SERP. 3.5 Data collection method 3.5.1 Data collection technique Online survey The use of appropriate data collection methods will help the researcher to collect the necessary data for the evaluation purpose. The researcher in this study has selected the online survey method for the collection of the responses from the users of online services of Ritz Carlton. The use of the online survey methods have also helped the researcher in maintaining low budget for the study and also helped the researcher to gather information about other hotels in Singapore. 3.5.2 Data collection tools Structured questionnaire The researcher in this study has used structured questionnaires for the purpose of online survey. According to Cresswell, (2003) the use of this questionnaire enables the researcher to make low involvement levels and include high number of responses. The use of the structured questionnaire will make it easy for the online respondents to quickly mark the correct option from among the different stated options in the questionnaire. The researcher has used 20 multiple choice questions within the structured questionnaire to analyze the effectiveness of the Ritz Carlton websites in terms of user friendliness, contents and designs. 3.5.3 Data collection process The researcher has used a unique method for the collection of the data about the website. Among the total population the researcher has targeted the potential group of people who are planning to make trips in the recent future to make a visit to the official website of Ritz Carlton. After the browsing of the website the group of customers were asked to fill up the online survey forms. This has helped the researcher to understand the effectiveness of the website of the hotel to the users. Moreover the researcher has also taken the opinions of the group of people who have already availed the services of Ritz Carlton to understand their level of satisfaction. 3.6 Sampling method and sample size 3.6.1 Sampling method Non probability According to Creswell, (2003) generally two types of sampling methods are used namely probability sampling and non probability sampling. The researcher in this case has used the non probability sampling method for the purpose of selection of target samples. The non probability sampling method has helped the researcher to follow a purposive method for the selection of the target sample population. On the contrary use of the probability sampling would have made it difficult for the researcher to select purposively rather the sample population would have to be selected randomly which would have hampered the quality of the research. 3.6.2 Sample size The researcher has selected total 70 respondents as a sample size for the evaluation of the objectives of the research. 3.7 Data analysis method Different methods were used by the researcher for the purpose of analyzing the quantitative data collected from the online surveys. The methods like Excel spreadsheets and the functions like sorting, charting, conditional formatting, what if analysis, pivot tables, filtering and data analysis formulas were used for the purpose of making the tables and the graphs based on the responses of the customers. 3.8 Summary The chapter shows the various techniques that the researcher has used in analyzing the responses of the customers about the effectiveness of the ICT tools in hotel Ritz Carlton, Singapore. 4. Chapter 4: Data analysis and Interpretation This chapter aims at presenting the findings and making interpretations about the responses based on the preparation of various tables and graphs to show the effectiveness of the ICT tools within the Ritz Carlton Hotel. 4.1 Response rate 4.2 Demography analysis 4.2.1 Gender analysis 4.2.2. Age group analysis In the following diagram the age group of the respondents has been represented. 4.3 Behavior of the respondents How many times do you pay visits to the website of hotels? In the following diagram the percentage of the frequency of visits is represented. 4.4 Analysis of the perception of respondents towards design, content, interactivity and usability (DCIU) 4.4.1 Design of the webpage How important is the design or the visual appearance of the hotel website? In the following diagram the response rate of design is shown. 4.4.2 Content of the website How significant according to you is the content provided in the hotel website? In the following diagram the response rate of the content is given. 4.4.3. Interactivity of the Website: In the following diagram the response rate for interactivity is given. 4.4.4. Usability: In the following diagram, the response rate of usability is given. 4.4.5 Overall Satisfaction level of the Users of Website: In the following table the overall satisfaction level of the users of the Hotel website can be presented. In the following diagram the satisfaction level can be shown. Chapter 5: Recommendations and Conclusion: Recommendation: Here various recommendations can be provided. It is known that customer satisfaction is the one of the most important factors especially in the service industry. Thus organizations should take measure for increasing the satisfaction level of the consumers. In the Ritz-Carlton hotel several ICT technologies can be implemented for increasing the satisfaction level of the consumers. The use of mobile devices can be very effective for the portability and increasing the access network. The organization should continuously work on the hotel website and they should add more applications for increasing the interactivity and access to the website. Conclusion: Here it can be concluded that ICT is very useful in the hospitality industry. It is evident that the organizations can use various tools of ICT for increasing the satisfaction level of the consumers and they can also achieve increased efficiency in the market. In recent economic scenario, the level of competition is very high thus it is necessary for the organizations to gain the competitive advantage in the industry and increase their market share. The ICT technology can significantly help the companies to gain benefits in the market and it can increase the opportunity for the hotels for greater customer benefit and thus satisfaction. Here the website analysis of the hotels has been conducted as well and various findings are presented. Measures should be taken by the organization in terms of the results. 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